North Cowichan review is a rare opportunity for Vancouver Island forests


  • The Municipality of North Cowichan owns 5,000 hectares of forest land. That’s about 12 Stanley Parks. Every year, the municipality cuts down some of the trees and sells the logs, which helps to fund municipal services and programs. 
  • The municipality is currently reviewing how it manages the forests. People can tell the municipality what’s most important to them about the forests in a survey until Dec. 13, 2021. There is a discussion guide with more information.
  • These forests are very important to the Quw’utsun people. The Quw’utsun Nation has agreed to ongoing talks with North Cowichan about the management of these lands.
  • These forests are very important ecologically. They are part of the rarest and most endangered ecosystem in British Columbia, where many endangered species live. A lot of the forest is healthy, which is rare for forests of this type. 
  • The next articles in this series will dive deeper into possible alternatives for managing North Cowichan municipal forests. Subscribe to The Discourse Cowichan to stay in the loop.

On Nov. 22, North Cowichan began a public consultation on the future of its municipal forest lands, located on unceded Quw’utsun Nation territory. The community has a rare opportunity to set the vision for the future of this significant piece of forest land, as big as 12 Stanley Parks.

The lands in question include much of Mount Prevost, Mount Tzouhalem, Mount Sicker, Maple Mountain, Mount Richards and Stoney Hill. These areas are important to many people for many reasons, including for recreational opportunities, cultural activities, rare ecological features and more. In an ecosystem where little old growth remains, North Cowichan’s municipal forests hold significant potential to become the old growth of the future. 

The municipality has logged and replanted about 30 per cent of the area since 1987. Profits from selling the trees support municipal services and programs. Now, the municipality is consulting First Nations, the public and experts on how the forests can best be managed into the future.

The process is both well behind schedule and right on time. After a devastating year of deadly heat waves, wildfires, old-growth blockades, floods and drought, the conversation about the future of the forests has never been more urgent.

A unique set of circumstances align in North Cowichan. It’s a chance to lead the way on how you bring a community together for a difficult conversation towards a shared goal: healthy forests that support healthy communities. 

“It’s an opportunity. Incredible opportunity.” says Barry Gates, a local forest land manager and co-chair of the Ecoforestry Institute Society. The society owns and manages the Wildwood Ecoforest, located fewer than 30 kilometres from North Cowichan’s northern boundary. “North Cowichan has a beautiful little site, small enough you can do really effective planning and big enough to make a difference.”

What’s so special about North Cowichan’s forests?

A few things make the municipal forest unique and special for several reasons. The first is just the fact of it. Few municipalities own and manage significant forest lands. Louisville, Kentucky’s Jefferson Memorial Forest claims to be the largest city-owned forest in the United States, and it’s half the size of the North Cowichan municipal forest reserve. 

In B.C., community forests are more typically located on Crown lands and managed through lease agreements with the province. (The Cumberland Community Forest Society is an exception. The group has purchased its forest outright through community organizing and fundraising. It owns about 200 hectares, compared with 5,000 owned by North Cowichan.)

The North Cowichan forests are a highly valued community asset. An extensive trail network covers much of the land, where hikers and bikers go to play, and volunteer groups work hard to maintain and improve it. Mount Prevost has been called “the lifeblood” of Canada’s downhill mountain biking scene. And Mount Tzouhalem’s parking lot became so overwhelmed during the pandemic that it was causing significant conflict with neighbours, prompting North Cowichan to develop new access points to the mountain.

North Cowichan forest Mount Tzouhalem
A mountain biker navigates the trail on a foggy November day on Mount Tzouhalem, in the North Cowichan municipal forest reserve. Photo by Philip McLachlan/The Discourse

The lands are also really important to the Quw’utsun people, who have used them for food, shelter, medicine and ceremony since time immemorial. The Quw’utsun Nation is a reclaimed political organization that includes Cowichan Tribes, Halalt First Nation, Lyackson First Nation, Penelakut Tribe and Stz’uminus First Nation. The Quw’utsun Nation is in ongoing discussions with North Cowichan about the municipal forest lands.

And the forests are also ecologically rare and important. Much of the land is part of the rarest and most endangered ecosystem in B.C. The forests are reasonably old and healthy, which makes them particularly important and valuable. 

To cut, or not to cut? The question — is so much more complicated than that. 

Business-as-usual is, of course, an option. Or, the municipality could stop all commercial harvesting. That option could bring in just as much money as logging, a report commissioned by North Cowichan suggests, if the municipality sold carbon credits instead. 

But then there are a million middle ways. What’s important to protect? How should the forest be best put to use, and how, and where? It’s up to the community, together, to come closer to the answers.

This article is the first in a series. It will get into a bit of the history and why these lands are particularly special. The next articles will imagine possible futures for the forest, drawing on lessons from elsewhere. There are resources for further learning at the bottom of this article. 

A short history

A quirk of history put North Cowichan in this unique position. The story goes back to the E&N Land Grant of the 1880s. The colonial government of the day gave away an enormous tract of land on Vancouver Island to the E&N Railway Company in exchange for a promise to build a railway. The grant spanned the east side of the Island between what’s now Langford and Campbell River.

E&N Land Grant map
The E&N Land Grant privatized a huge swath of Vancouver Island. Screenshot from “The Great Land Grab in Hul’qumi’num Territory,” by the Hul’qumi’num Treaty Group

The Hul’qumi’num Treaty Group calls this deal “a clear act of colonial theft,” and continues to dispute its validity. The group represents Cowichan Tribes, Halalt, Lyackson, Ts’uubaa-asatx and Penelakut at the provincial treaty negotiation table.

The railway company later sold off the land in pieces, mostly to forestry companies. (Still today, 60 per cent of Hul’qumi’num territory is owned by just three forestry companies.) Much was ultimately sold off for urban development and agriculture, too. The result is the patchwork of private ownership up the coast of the Island today.

North Cowichan’s municipal forests were previously owned by forestry companies, too. But after logging what they could, the companies stopped paying their municipal tax bills. Over the 1930s and 1940s, North Cowichan appropriated the lands in lieu of the taxes owed. 

Council designated the lands, a size of about 5,000 hectares, as a forest reserve in 1946. It covers a quarter of the land in North Cowichan’s borders.

This map shows the lands that make up the North Cowichan municipal forest. Screenshot from the North Cowichan Municipal Forest Reserve Discussion Guide

In late 2018, a group of citizens, organized as Where Do We Stand, asked for a pause on logging in the forest reserve to allow for consultation with experts and the public, “in light of accelerating ecological, economic, and social changes.” Hundreds of people showed up at a council meeting, filling council chambers and an overflow room, too, to demand a say on forestry in North Cowichan. 

Under intense public pressure, the municipality agreed to review its forest management. It hired a group of forestry experts at UBC for a technical review and planned public consultations.

Residents demanding a say on forest management fill the space behind North Cowichan councillors at a packed meeting on December 19, 2018. Photo by Jacqueline…

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